Discusses the overlap between race, ethnicity and nationality: Points out that in many societies, the words are used interchangeably.
African-Caribbeans claimed that their skin colour was the biggest influence on their ethnic identity. Southern Asians claimed it was Religion.
What people consider important about their ethnicity changes for different people.
Found that British people do not think ‘white’ is an ethnicity.
Noted that Dove body lotion ranges from ‘normal’ to ‘dark’ skin. White must therefore be seen as the default.
Suggested this attitude is changing and that it is being realised that ethnicity is something everyone has.
Developed the concept of ‘othering’; a subtle form of racism that secures a positive identity for one group by discrediting the identity of another, creating an “us and them” scenario.
Found that white, working class people felt frustration that they “couldn’t” celebrate their white, working class culture.
Found that it was not just young black youths who developed hybrid identities, but also white youths. In particular areas, local youths of all ethnicities develop a shared identity and sense of solidarity/common identity. Back called this “neighbourhood nationalism”.
Francis & Archer
Different cultures value education differently. For example, educational achievement is valued most highly in the UK by British-Chinese families.
Found that families were extremely important in shaping the identities of Muslim girls. They sought independence through education and careers, but felt it important to always maintain family links.
Using at least four studies, outline and evaluate the view that ethnicity is a strong influence on identity in the contemporary UK.