A sample response to the 20 mark question from this month's progress test...a similar question (with slightly reduced requirements) could feature in the AS exam as a 6, 8 or 12-marker.
Using the sources and your wider sociological knowledge explain how national identities have changed 
A national identity is both the identity of an entire nation and the related identities shared by individuals within than nation. Anderson described a ‘nation’ as an ‘imagined community’. This means that, because the members of any one nation will never meet most of the other members, a national identity is socially constructed to bond those members to one another in a single community. For example, it is unlikely that any one English person will ever meet every other English person, so a shared identity is created – consisting of things like a national anthem, the flag, the love of cups of tea and fish n’ chips, a penchant for forming orderly queues – to enable English people to relate to and feel close to one another. This identity is then promoted and reinforced through the mass media – for example, in the coverage of international sporting events where the English are encouraged to ‘get behind’ their countrymen (and women) against the ‘foreign’ sides.
In recent years, it could be argued that many national identities have dramatically changed. It can be argued that this is a result of globalisation: As things like international travel and social media make the world a smaller place, some of the clearer divides between nations have become blurred. Stuart Hall suggested that there are three possible reactions from nations in the face of this.
The first is cultural homogenisation, whereby a global culture replaces national cultures and countries become more similar. This can be evidenced in the way that many young people consider themselves ‘citizens of the world’ rather than belonging to a particular nation. Source B could be argued to demonstrate this, after all, almost every city in the world now has very similar shops and businesses present in it (e.g. McDonalds, as shown in the picture). Some sociologists think this is a negative thing; Halsey argued that Britain has lost its distinctiveness due to the ‘Americanisation’ of British culture (Halsey presumably misses the Wimpey burger chain). Others might argue that making nations culturally closer reduces the differences that divide us, making us closer and safer.
The second way according to Hall is cultural hybridity, whereby some parts of global culture are accepted, but are blended with aspects of traditional culture. This could be seen in national cuisines – for example, in the UK, Chicken Tikka Masala is considered a ‘national dish’, though it is a ‘hybrid’ of British and Bangladeshi food. It can also be seen in the media; for example, the British TV show ‘The Office’ was reproduced in the USA, retaining the spirit of the original but incorporating more US-oriented humour. Source B could also be an example of this, as even though the McDonalds chain in present throughout the world, with the same logo and key items on offer, the actual menu differs in different nations (e.g. in a French McDonalds, wine is served).
The third way is cultural resistance. This is when a nation resists global culture and tries to protect its own heritage. Many sociologists have observed that aspects of identity tend to become more significant to individuals when they are perceived as being threatened. Globalisation could be seen as a threat to national identity and therefore, to some people, it becomes stronger and more important to them. This can have negative consequences and source A could be considered an extreme example of this; some English people have felt their national identity threatened by aspects of globalisation such as multiculturalism and immigration and have responded with a kind of angry, white ‘nationalism’ which is often expressed through racism and violence. Hewitt described this as a ‘white backlash’. Similar feelings of reasserting a national identity have been linked to the British voting to leave the European Union and the election of Donald Trump with his promises to “make America great again” by building walls and excluding those alleged to have ‘un-American’ values.
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